The Collas were another indigenous people that still exists in our country. They are descended from ancient tribes who lived in Argentina and Bolivia and in the fifteenth century they were conquered by the Incas. During the nineteenth century many of them moved from Argentina to the mountain areas of Atacama (region III). According to the 2002 Census 3,198 people in Chile originate Colla live. 

Geographical location: 

The Colla living in the vicinity of towns like Potrerillos, Diego de Almagro, El Salvador, Paipote and around the city of Chañaral, Copiapó and Vallenar. However, the majority live in the pre-mountain bankruptcy of region III. This is a wilderness area but two important rivers are the Rio Salado and Río Copiapó. In the hills are peppers, carob and chañares.















When Diego de Almagro reached the transverse valleys, in 1536, found the different native now known as Diaguita peoples. That name was given to the early twentieth century. Well, according to research, their customs were very similar to those of some indigenous Argentines also called Diaguita. 




The diaguita occupied the valleys of Copiapo, Huayco (now third region), skiing, Limarí and Choapa (now fourth region). This area includes the so-called "transverse valleys" and is also known as small north. The valleys cross the Chilean territory of mountains to the sea, they are narrow, surrounded by high mountains and the center runs a river that bears his name. The climate is dry, low rainfall in the winter and most of the year the sun shines. The landscape is barren, but the soil along rivers is fertile. Especially in these valleys installed the ancient inhabitants of Chile.














Formerly, they were called Atacama or likan-antai. The Atacameños are today one of the native peoples that exist in our country and are part of the so-called Andean cultures. According to the 2002 census there are 21,015 belonging to the Chilean Atacama ethnicity. 


The inhabitants of the Desert 


The Likan-Atacameños antai or lived in areas between the Puna de Atacama (in Antofagasta Region II) and high Andean cordillera. At present the descendants of the ancient antai Likan-live all the great North, in urban areas, but mainly in the valleys and oasis found in the Atacama desert and salt flats. Here the landscape is arid, rainfall is low, the air is dry and there is a large temperature difference between day and night. The River Loa, he most important region II, born on the slopes of the volcano and the mountain Miño Aucanquilcha. This river irrigates the Oasis of Chiu-Chiu, Lasagna, Calama, Quillaga and San Pedro de Atacama. 

The Atacameños were skilled traders. To move your goods were llama caravans that crossed the Andes or roamed hundreds of miles through the Atacama desert to the sea where they traded with the inhabitants of the coast and getting through barter, fish, seaweed and shellfish dry. 

The experts were also Atacameños miners; exploited the silver mines of gold, copper, tin, salt, lead, saltpetre and sulfur and worked semiprecious stones, such as turquoise and malachite.














"As for the Incas, this great ancient empire, explained that they were among us, worked and left traces of their stay in our land of Atacama. Left their legacy and were great contribution to our culture. Were within OtherActivities that conducted in these parts, big miners. "© ECAT 


  The Incas Andean people belonged to circa 1000 AD they moved in search of better livelihoods from Lake Titicaca (now Bolivia) to the valley of Cuzco (Peru today). 

Several centuries later, formed an empire that lasted about a hundred years until the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors in the early sixteenth century AD .. A call this empire was Tawantinsuyu and its capital was the city of Cuzco. 


Formation of the Empire: 

At first the Incas were a group of families who obeyed a chief. According to history, the first Inca chief and founder of Cuzco was called Manco Capac, who lived around 1200 AD 

Two centuries later, between 1438 and 1471 AD Pachakutec ruled Inka Yupanqui, who was the emperor who expanded the empire more Tawantinsuyu. 

To seize new territories the Inca armies set up their headquarters in nearby villages who wanted to conquer and from there negotiated with local chiefs to ally with them places. At first they tried to convince them by gifts, but if that system was not he declared war. 

A banished the rebels and sent as colonists to new remote territories. These settlers were called forced mitimaes. 

The Inca designated a kurakas or officer of the empire, who controlled the entire community to produce goods and comply with taxes. Through this system annexed territories ranged from Ecuador in the north to the Maule river in the south.